References

Ankle Part 2: Fractures (Lecture References)

 

Starkey and Ryan, Evaluation of Orthopaedic and Athletic Injuries, 2nd edition, FA Davis, Philadelphia, PA, pp.136-185

Magee DJ, Orthopaedic Physical Assessment, Saunders, Philadelphia, PA 1987 pp. 314-361

Pfeiffer RP, Mangus BC,: Concepts of Athletic Training, 4th Edition, Jones and Bartlett, Sudbury, Massachusetts 2005, pp228-245

Hoppenfeld S: Physical Examination of the Spine and Extremities, Appleton-Century-Crofts – Prentice Hall, NY,NY, 1976 pp 197-236

Griffin LY, Essentials of Musculoskeletal Care, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons,3rd edition, Rosemont, IL, 2005 pp. 574-598

Brown DE, Neumann RD, Orthopaedic Secrets 2nd edition, Hanley & Belfus, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 331-343.

Geissler WB, Tsao AK, Hughes JL: Fractures and Injuries of the Ankle, in Rockwood CA, Green DP, Bucholz RW: Rockwood and Green’s Fractures in Adults, 4rd edition, JB Lippincott, NY, NY, 1996, pp 2201-2254

Crenshaw, AE: Campbell’s Operative Orthopaedics 8th edition, Mosby Year Book, St Louis, MO, pp. 786-800, 2611-2613

Tintinalli JE, Ruiz E, Krome RL: Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide, Fourth Edition, American College of Emergency Physicians, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY; pp 1265-1270

Helms CA: Fundamentals of Skeletal Radiology, 2nd edition, Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, 1995

Parker MD: Introduction to Radiology, Lippincott, Philadelphia, PA, 1985

Duke Orthopaedics, www.wheelessonline.com/ortho/the_ankle_joint, November 16, 2009

Carr JB, Trafton PG,: Malleolar Fractures and Soft Tissue Injuries of the Ankle in Browner BD, Jupiter JB, Levine AM and Trafton PG, Skeletal Trauma, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders 1998, pp. 2327-2404